What is role of heparin during hemodialysis?
Heparin is an anticoagulant. During hemodialysis, an anticoagulant like heparin is added to the blood drained from a convenient artery before pumping into a dialysing unit.
Which of the following is a uricotelic animal?
Reptiles, birds, land snails and insects excrete nitrogenous wastes as uric acid. They excrete uric acid in the form of pellet or paste with a minimum loss of water. This type of animal is called uricotelic animals.
Which of the following pairs is correct?
Hemodialysis – Removal of urea from blood, not removal of urine. Uremia – Malfunctioning of kidneys results in an accumulation of urea in blood. This condition is called uremia. Glomerulonephritis – Inflammation of glomeruli of kidney
If you want to study about the medullary pyramids, which of the following is the best site in the kidney for the study?
Calyces are the best site in the kidney for the study about the medullary pyramids. Kidney has a tough outer layer called capsule. It contains two zones, an outer cortex and an inner medulla. The medulla is divided into a few conical masses called medullary pyramids which project into the calyces. So, calyces are the best site in the kidney for the study of medullary pyramids.
Loop of Henle is connected with
Loop of Henle is a U-shaped structure found in nephron which absorbs water. It is connected to the excretory system.
Which of the following helps in the removal of nitrogenous wastes in earthworms?
Nephridia are the tubular excretory structures which help in the removal of nitrogenous wastes and maintain a fluid and ionic balance in earthworms and other annelids.
Angiotensinogen is a protein produced and secreted by
Angiotensinogen is a protein produced and secreted by liver cells.
Which of the following cannot pass onto the lumen of the Bowman’s capsule?
All the constituents of the plasma except the proteins pass onto the lumen of the Bowman’s capsule.
Which of the following is the tuft of capillaries inside the malpighian body?
Glomerulus is the tuft of capillaries inside the malpighian body.
Which of the following act as an excretory structure in Platyhelminthes?
Flame cells act as the excretory structures in Platyhelminthes. Flame cells are otherwise called as Protonephridia.
Which one of the following is not a part of a renal pelvis?
Renal pelvis is the innermost portion of kidneys. So, collecting ducts are not a part of renal pelvis.
Which of the following organs break down the excess amino acids to urea?
The excess amino acids in the body are broken down in liver.
In diabetes mellitus, the patient drinks more water as there is urinary loss of
Diabetes mellitus is a disease condition where more of glucose is excreted in urine due to insufficiency of insulin.
Which of the following is the best treatment for renal failure?
Kidney transplantation is the best treatment for renal failure, whereas heamodialysis and dialysis are the methods used to purify blood.
Which of the following is not a regulating factor of kidney function?
Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is the amount of the filtrate formed by the kidneys per minute. It is not the regulating factor of kidney function. But, kidney functions are efficiently monitored and regulated by hormonal feedback mechanisms. The hormonal feedback mechanisms involve the hypothalamus, Juxta glomerular apparatus (JGA) and to a certain extent, the heart.
Which of the following cannot enter through the central notch of the kidney called hilum?
Medullary pyramids cannot enter through the central notch of the kidney called hilum. In the given options, only ureter, blood vessels and nerves can enter the centre of the inner concave surface of the kidney, notch, called hilum, whereas, medullary pyramids are the conical masses of medulla which project into the calyces.
Which of the following is not a nitrogenous waste?
Carbon dioxide is not a nitrogenous waste whereas urea, uric acid and ammonia are nitrogenous waste.
Which of the following is indicative of diabetes mellitus?
Glycosuria is the presence of glucose and ketonuria is the presence of ketone bodies in urine. These are the indicative of diabetes mellitus.
The blood vessel taking blood into Bowman's capsule is
An afferent arteriole enters each Bowman's capsule to form the glomerulus. An efferent arteriole arises from the glomerulus.
Urinary bladder is absent in
Aves (or birds) do not have urinary bladder. (exceptions- ostrich, rhea). Their urine is semi-solid uric acid. Uric acid goes down to cloaca and is excreted out along with faeces.
Which of the following carry away the blood from glomerulus?
Blood from the glomerulus is carried away by an efferent arteriole.
Urea is formed in liver cells from
Urea is formed in liver cells from ammonia and carbon dioxide by urea cycle.
The most toxic excretory product is
Ammonia is highly soluble in water and the most toxic excretory product. Thus, it's concentration must be kept very low in the blood.
Which regulates reabsorption of salts from glomerular filtrate?
Mineral corticoids regulates reabsorption of salts from glomerular filtrate.
Bowman's glands are located in the
Bowman's glands are located in the olfactory epithelium of our nose
Which of the following is the first step in the urine formation?
The first step in urine formation is the filtration of blood. This is carried out by the glomerulus. This process is called glomerular filtration.
Glomerular filtrate contains glucose in comparison to plasma
The amount of water, urea, glucose salts and amino acid in glomerular filtrate is same as in plasma i.e., it is isotonic with plasma.
The kidneys resemble contractile vacuoles of protozoans in
The contractile vacuole mainly expels surplus water in protozoans. The fresh water protozoans gain water by osmosis from their hypotonic environment.
Mammals are characterised by
Mammals are characterized by metanephric kidney with loop of Henle.
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