Class 12th Biology – 11 Biotechnology: Principles and Processes MCQs

The Taq polymerase from Thermus aquaticus is a ____ enzyme.

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The Taq polymerase from Thermus aquaticus is a thermostable enzyme. Thermus aquaticus, an unusual heat-loving bacterium was discovered in 1985 in a hot spring in Yellowstone National Park. The DNA polymerase of this bacterium, dubbed Taq polymerase attach nucleotides even in the high heat generated by the successive “photocopying” cycles required during PCR. Options A, C and D are incorrect.

Gel electrophoresis is used primarily for

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Gel electrophoresis is a technique to separation of DNA fragments according to their size. DNA is negatively charged so in gel tank when electric current is passed, DNA move towards positive electrode.

The substrates for restriction enzymes are more or less specific sequences of double-stranded DNA called _____.

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The substrates for restriction enzymes are more-or-less specific sequences of double-stranded DNA called recognition sequences. Options C and D are incorrect. Option B - is incorrect. Palindromic sequences is the type of recognition sequences and all recognition sequences are not palindromes.

The first artificial recombinant DNA was constructed by ____ and ____.

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The first artificial recombinant DNA was constructed by Stanley Cohen and Herbert Boyer. Stanley Cohen and Herbert Boyer (1972) altered the native plasmid of Salmonella typhimurium. An antibiotic resistance gene from a plasmid was introduced using restriction endonuclease in the plasmid. Options A, B and C are incorrect.

The development of recombinant DNA technology is possible by the significant discovery of ____ ____.

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The development of recombinant DNA technology is possible by the significant discovery of restriction enzyme. Options A, B and D are incorrect.

In the process of genetic engineering, the selection of DNA fragments coding for proteins of interest are chemically synthesised or ____ from an organism.

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In the process of genetic engineering, the selection of DNA fragments coding for proteins of interest are chemically synthesized or isolated from an organism. Options A is incorrect. Options B and D are incorrect as they are not precise answers.

Genetic engineered bacteria is used for production of

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Genetic engineered bacteria is used for production of insulin. On 5th July 1983, the american firm Eli Lilly launched humulin (1st genetically engineered human insulin)

Insertion of recombinant DNA into the host cells can be identified using ____ that are normally antibiotic resistant genes.

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Insertion of recombinant DNA into the host cells can be identified using selectable markers that are normally antibiotic resistant genes. The antibiotic resistance genes are used to identify the transformants or cells with recombinant DNA. Options A, B and C are incorrect.

In the nomenclature of the cloning vector what do the alphabets p, B and R represent?

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p-plasmid, B-Bolivar, R-Rodriguez. Options A, B and D are incorrect.

DNA molecules are ____ charged along their length so they migrate towards the ____ electrode of the gel electrophoresis.

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DNA molecules are negatively charged along their length so they migrate towards the anode electrode (positive electrode) of the gel electrophoresis. Options A, B and D are incorrect.

The raising new plants from a plant tissue through tissue culture is termed as

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Living cells or tissues or organs are cultured in aseptic conditions in nutrient medium to produce plantlets which is disease resistant. This is known as tissue culture or micropropagation.

First cloned animal

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In 1996,Dolly - The sheep ,first mammal to have been cloned successfully from adult cell at roslin institute in scotland.

Most of the recognition sequences of endonucleases are ____ sequences.

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Most of the recognition sequences of endonucleases are palindrome sequences. Most recognition sequences are palindromes - they read the same forward (5' to 3' on the top strand) and backward (5' to 3' on the bottom strand). Options B, C and D are incorrect.

The enzyme, which helps to cut one strand of DNA duplex to release tension of coiling of two strands is

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During the process of replication the enzyme that helps to cut one strand of DNA duplex to release the tension of coiling of two strands is topoisomerase.

Which of the following is/are pesticide?

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DDT, BHC (Benzene Hexachloride) - chlorinated hydrocarbons. Aldrin - Carbamate (reversibly inhibits acetylcholenesterase).

There is a restriction endonuclease called EcoRI. What does co. part in it stand for?

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EcoRI is an endonuclease enzyme isolated from strains of E. coli and a part of restriction modified system. So co part stands for coli.

Higher yields of recombinant protein can be obtained by ____ culture system in a bioreactor.

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Higher yields of recombinant protein can be obtained by continuous culture system in a bioreactor. Continuous culture system has provisions for simulataneous removal of aged culture medium and addition of fresh culture medium to maintain the cells in the exponential phase. Options A, C and D are incorrect.

Bacteria can naturally undergo recombination by ____ process.

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Bacteria can naturally undergo recombination by transformation process. Transformation is one of the processes by which exogenous genetic material may be introduced into a bacterial cell. Options A, B and C are incorrect.

The production of recombinant DNA molecules depends on the ability of ____ to cleave DNA at specific sites.

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The production of recombinant DNA molecules depends on the ability of restriction enzyme to cleave DNA at specific sites. Options A, B and D are incorrect.

Common bacteria used in genetic engineering is

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E. coli is commonly used microrganisms for scientific research because it is easy,inexpensive and harmless to grow.

The collection of biomass from the bioreactor forms the ____ processing of commercial production of recombinant protein.

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The collection of biomass from the bioreactor forms the upstream processing of commercial production of recombinant protein. Options A, B and C are incorrect.

DNA or RNA segment tagged with a radioactive molecule is called

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DNA or RNA segment tagged with a radioactive molecule is called probe. They are used to detect the presence of complementary sequences in nucleic acid samples. Probes are used for identification and isolation of DNA and RNA.

The first description of the PCR reaction used the DNA polymerase I enzyme from the bacterium ____.

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The first description of the PCR reaction used the DNA polymerase I enzyme from Escherichia coli. As the E. coli enzyme is heat sensitive, its activity was killed during the denaturation step at 95oC. Therefore a new aliquot of the enzyme had to be added with each cycle. Options B, C and D are incorrect.

Bio-guns work by coating ____ particles with the genetic material.

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Bio-guns work by coating gold particles with the genetic material. The gold particles bombard the cells allowing entry to the cells where they transfer the requisite genetic material to the cells. Options A, B and D are incorrect.

Which one of the following is used as vector for cloning genes into higher organisms?

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Retroviruses are excellent vector for introducing gene into animal cells. They are modified so they can not cause diseases in animal cells. They deliver new DNA by infecting cells. Hence, it can be used as a vector for cloning desirable genes into animal cells.

Genetic engineering involves ____ manipulation of an organism’s genome.

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Genetic engineering involves deliberate manipulation of an organism’s genome. Options A, C and D are incorrect.

The selectable marker permits selection of ____ which bear ____ DNA

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The selectable marker permits selection of transformants which bear recombinant DNA. Options A, C and D are incorrect.

The enzyme that is not used in extracting the genetic material of a desirable cell is ____.

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The enzyme that is not used in extracting the genetic material of a desirable cell is DNAse. Options A, B and D are incorrect. DNAse will degrade the DNA present in the extract.

Which of the following is not a genetic vector?

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Virusoid is not a genetic vector. Virusoids are circular single stranded RNA dependent on plant viruses for replication & encapsidation.

Axenic culture' is

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Axenic is a method of culture of isolated plant cells, tissues or organs in an artificial, nutritive medium.

Class 12th Biology - 11 Biotechnology: Principles and Processes MCQs
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Class 12th Biology - 11 Biotechnology: Principles and Processes MCQs