____ plays a key role in the formation of ionic bond.
Lattice enthalpy plays a key role in the formation of ionic bond. After the formation of positive and negative ions, the two ions are held by the forces which release energy which helps in the formation of lattice. This force is called lattice enthalpy. The more the energy released, more is the stability. Lesser the energy possessed by the molecule, more is the stability.
The Mulliken electronegativety is given by the relation ____ .
Mulliken scale for the measurement of electronegativity is based on the loss and gain of electrons. Hence, Χ = 1/2 (I.E. + E.A.)
The molecule MLx is planar with six pairs of electrons around M in the valence shell. The value of x is ____.
When it is a planar molecule and it has six pairs of electrons around the central atom, it should be octahedral geometry with four bond pairs and two lone pairs. So, x= 4, where four atoms bond with the central atom.
The bond angle depends on ____ .
The bond angle depends only on the orbital's containing bonding electrons. The bond angle is defined as the average angle between the lines representing the orbital's containing the bonding electrons.
The number and type of bond between the two carbon atoms in calcium carbide are ____.
In Calcium carbide, the covalent bonds formed between Carbon and carbon are triple bond. Hence, it contains one sigma and two pi bonds. In carbide, the bonds are as follows: C ≡ C.
Among the following compounds, ____ is a super octet molecule.
Phosphorus penta chloride is a super octet molecule. Options A and option C are compounds with electron deficient atoms. Option D is a compound with completed octet. Option B alone is expanded octet. It is called super octet molecule.
Chemical bond implies
At bond distance the attractive forces overweight the repulsive forces.
The bond formed by the contribution of electron pair by one atom entirely, and shared by both is called as ____.
The bond formed by the complete transfer of electrons from one atom is known as Ionic bond or electrovalent bond. For e.g. NaCl, KCl, etc. The bond formed by the sharing of electrons by two atoms is called covalent bond. All organic compounds are formed by carbon and hydrogen (Hydrocarbons). Methane, alcohols, BeCl2, etc. The bond formed by two atoms by sharing, but one of the atom is more electronegative than the other, is known as polar covalent bond. For e.g. HCl, HF, etc. The bond formed by the contribution of a pair of electrons by one atom and two atoms share the same pair is called as Co-ordinate covalent bond. For e.g. H3N ----> BH3. In all co-ordinate complexes, the arrow represents the donation and sharing of a pair of electrons by one atom and sharing by both.
Sodium chloride is an ionic compound whereas hydrogen chloride is mainly covalent because
hydrogen is non metal and non metal atoms form covalent bond.
Ionic bond formation depends upon ____ .
Ionic bond formation depends on the three factors: Ionisation enthalpy: Which leads to the formation of positive ions, Electron gain enthalpy: Which leads to the formation of negative ions, Lattice enthalpy: Which leads to the formation of a lattice by the release of energy by combining the positive and negative ions
Bond order is defined as _________________ .
Bond order is defined as half-the-difference of the number of electrons in the bonding orbitals and the anti-bonding orbitals. B.O. = 1/2 (No. of bonding electrons - No. of anti- bonding electrons)
Linear combination of two hybridized orbitals belonging to two atoms and each having one electron leads to a
Linear combination of two hybridized orbitals leads to the formation of sigma bond.
Which does not show resonance ?
Benzene and the compounds having benzene ring show resonance. Hence, ethyl amine does not show resonance.
which of the following Pairs will form the most stable ionic bond?
The stability of the ionic bond depends upon the lattice energy which is expected to be more between Mg and F due to +2 charge on Mg atom.
Of the options given below, ____ has the strongest bond.
As we move down the group, the size increases and thus the bond length increases and bond strength decreases. So, F - F should be strongest, but Cl - Cl bond is the strongest because in F - F, the small size and more electron cloud around the atom causes electron-electron repulsion which breaks the bond easily. Hence, Cl - Cl bond is the strongest.
In aqueous solution, ____ dissociates to give dihalide ion.
In aqueous solution, HF dissociates to give dihalide ion. This is due to hydrogen bonding in HF. Since Cl, Br and I are not so highly electronegative, the molecules of HCl, HBr and HI do not have hydrogen bonding. So, all dissociate to form halide ions, while HF dissociates to form difluoride ions.
Linus Pauling scale is based upon ____ .
Linus Pauling scale for the measure of electronegativity is based upon the energy of bond formation.
Among the following, ____ is diamagnetic.
Super oxide ion, oxygen and uni positive nitrogen molecule are all paramagnetic as they have unpaired electron/s. Carbon has no unpaired electron. Hence, it is diamagnetic.
A covalent bond is likely to be formed between two elements which :
The elements having similar electronegativity undergo covalent bond formation. For an ionic bond formation one of the atoms should have low ionisation energy so that it can lose an electron easily, and the other should have high electron affinity so that it can gain an electron easily.
The number of non-bonding electrons in a nitrogen molecule are
Of the 5 valence electrons present on each N, three are involved in bond formation. So two electrons on each N atom are present as non-bonded electrons. Hence for N2 total of four electrons are non-bonded.
The molecule in which hydrogen bonding is not present is ____ .
Hydrogen sulphide does not have hydrogen bonding. Hydrogen bonding is not present in hydrogen sulphide molecule due to negligible difference in the electronegativity between hydrogen and sulphur. So, there is no possibility of inter molecular association.
Ionic compounds are crystalline in nature because of ____ .
Ionic compounds exist in the form of crystalline solids. They do not exist as independent molecules or atoms, but exist in the form of ions. These ions are arranged in a well-defined geometric pattern. The pattern of arrangement of ions depends on the size of ions and also on the magnitude of charge on the ions.
Chemical bond implies ____.
A chemical bond is formed by the attraction and repulsion of electrons balanced at a particular distance.
The electron dot representation of covalent molecules is also called ____.
Electron representation of the covalent molecule is called as Lewis structure. Lewis was the first person to explain the covalent structure with the dots representing the valence electrons of the atom, combining with the other atoms.
The o-hydroxyl benzaldehyde is a liquid at room temperature due to the presence of ______________.
The o-hydroxy benzaldehyde is a liquid at room temperature due to the presence of intramolecular hydrogen bonding. The o-hydroxy benzaldehyde exists as single molecule and so molecules do not aggregate to form association of molecules. Hence, it is a liquid at room temperature.
____ exists as linear polymer at ordinary temperature and pressure.
Hydrogen fluoride exists as linear polymer at ordinary temperature and pressure. HF molecules exists as linear polymer due to extensive hydrogen bonding as follows: (.......H - F.........H - F........H - F......)n
Kossel's approach to chemical bonding is limited to ____ .
Kossel's field of study was largely limited to inorganic compounds. Lewis focused his study on organic compounds.
Iso-electronic species have ____.
Iso-electronic species would have the same no. of electrons. So, the bond order would be the same.
Electrovalency is equal to the ____ charges on the ion.
Electrovalency is equal to the unit charges on the ion. Unit charge means the positive or negative charges carried by the ion due to loss of electrons or gain of electrons.
Chemical bonds are formed by the involvement of ____.
Chemical bonds are formed by the involvement of valence electrons. All valence electrons are involved depending upon the type of bond formed. Penultimate electrons are the inner electrons which do not take part in chemical bonding.
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