When is an osmoreceptor activated?
Changes in blood volume, body fluid volume and ionic concentration activate osmoreceptors.
What is the role of rennin-angiotensin mechanism?
The rennin-angiotensin mechanism increases the blood pressure.
Which of the following statements is correct?
The flow of filtrate in the two limbs of Henle’s loop is in opposite directions and thus forms a counter current.
Which of the following is not secreted into the filtrate by Proximal Convoluted Tubule (PCT)?
Proximal Convoluted Tubule (PCT) helps maintain the pH and ionic balance of the body fluids. It is done by selective secretion of hydrogen ions, ammonia and potassium ions into the filtrate and by absorption of HCO3- from it.
From which of the following is Bowman’s capsule formed?
The renal tubule begins with a double walled cup-like structure called Bowman’s capsule.
Which of the following part of nephron is situated in medulla?
The cortical region of the kidney contains the Malpighian corpuscle, proximal convoluted tubule and distal convoluted tubule.Whereas the loop of Henle dips into the medulla.
Which of the following statement is true?
The descending limb is permeable to water but almost impermeable to electrolytes. The ascending limb is impermeable to water but allows transport of electrolytes actively or passively.
Which of the following carry away the blood from glomerulus?
Blood from the glomerulus is carried away by an efferent arteriole.
Which of the following pair is correct?
"Efferent arteriole – Peritubular capillaries" is the correct pair.
What are Columns of Bertini?
The cortex extends in between the medullary pyramids as a renal column and this is called Columns of Bertini.
What is the role of podocytes?
Podocytes are the epithelial cells of Bowman’s capsule which provide minute spaces called filtration slits or slit pores.
If you want to study about the medullary pyramids, which of the following is the best site in the kidney for the study?
Calyces are the best site in the kidney for the study about the medullary pyramids.
What is role of heparin during hemodialysis?
Heparin is an anticoagulant. During hemodialysis, an anticoagulant like heparin is added to the blood drained from a convenient artery before pumping into a dialysing unit.
Which of the following cannot pass onto the lumen of the Bowman’s capsule?
All the constituents of the plasma except the proteins pass onto the lumen of the Bowman’s capsule.
Which of the following is not a constituent of urine in a healthy person?
Sugar is not a constituent of urine in a healthy person. It is excreted only in diabetic patients.
Which of the following is not a regulating factor of kidney function?
Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is the amount of the filtrate formed by the kidneys per minute. It is not the regulating factor of kidney function. But, kidney functions are efficiently monitored and regulated by hormonal feedback mechanisms. The hormonal feedback mechanisms involve the hypothalamus, Juxta glomerular apparatus (JGA) and to a certain extent, the heart.
Which of the following is the best treatment for renal failure?
Kidney transplantation is the best treatment for renal failure, whereas hemodialysis and dialysis are the methods used to purify blood.
Which of the following cannot enter through the central notch of the kidney called hilum?
Medullary pyramids cannot enter through the central notch of the kidney called hilum.
Which of the following is the long duct that connects cortex and medulla?
Collecting duct is the long duct that extends from the cortex of the kidney to the inner parts of the medulla.
Which of the following is indicative of diabetes mellitus?
Glycosuria is the presence of glucose and ketonuria is the presence of ketone bodies in urine. These are the indicative of diabetes mellitus.
Which of the following is the tuft of capillaries inside the malpighian body?
Glomerulus is the tuft of capillaries inside the malpighian body.
Which of the following statement is correct?
Kidneys are located between the last thoracic and third lumbar vertebra close to the dorsal inner wall of the abdominal cavity.
Which of the following increases the surface area for reabsorption?
Proximal Convoluted Tubule (PCT) is lined by simple cuboidal brush border epithelium which increases the surface area for reabsorption.
Which of the following prevents diuresis?
When there is an excessive loss of fluid from the body, osmoreceptors are activated. These receptors stimulate the hypothalamus to release antidiuretic hormone (ADH) or vasopressin. ADH facilitates water reabsorption from later parts of the tubule and prevents diuresis.
Which of the following is the check for rennin-angiotensin mechanism?
Atrial Natriuretic Factor (ANF) is released when there is an increase in the blood flow to the atria of the heart. This ANF causes vasodilation and thereby decreases the blood pressure. Thus, it acts as a check on the renin-angiotensin mechanism which occurs in an increased blood pressure and glomerular filtration rate (GFR).
If there is a problem in the tubular epithelial cells which performs passive transport mechanism, which of the following can’t be reabsorbed during the reabsorption process?
The tubular epithelial cells in the nephrons perform reabsorpton either by active or passive mechanisms.
Which of the following pairs is correct?
Hemodialysis – Removal of urea from blood, not removal of urine Uremia – Malfunctioning of kidneys results in an accumulation of urea in blood. This condition is called uremia. Glomerulonephritis – Inflammation of glomeruli of kidney
Which of the following is the first step in the urine formation?
The first step in urine formation is the filtration of blood. This is carried out by the glomerulus. This process is called glomerular filtration.
For how long urine is stored in the urinary bladder?
Urine is stored in the urinary bladder until it receives voluntary signal from the central nervous system.
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