In humans, each half of the upper and lower jaw, starting from the front, is arranged as ____. Note: I – Incisors, C – Canine, PM – Premolars, and M – Molars
In humans, each half of the upper and lower jaw is arranged in the order, incisors (I), canine (C), premolars (PM) and molars (M). (from front to back)
When the food is passed from the oesophagus, its entry to the stomach is controlled by ____.
A muscular sphincter called gastro-oesophageal regulates the opening of oesophagus into the stomach.
Between the mouth and the stomach, the partially digested food passes through ____.
Gullet (oesophagus) is the muscular tube located between the mouth and the stomach through which the partially digested food from the mouth is passed to the stomach.
____ is absorbed by facilitated transport mechanism.
Substances like fructose and some amino acids are absorbed with the help of the carrier ions like Na+. This type of transport mechanism is called facilitated transport.
Problems in ____ will affect the absorption of vitamin B12.
Parietal or oxyntic cells secrete HCl and intrinsic factor that is essential for the absorption of vitamin B12. So, problem in parietal or oxyntic cells in the gastric glands will affect the absorption of vitamin B12.
____ is not the function of liver.
Insulin is not synthesised in liver. It is synthesized in the pancreas.
Since the fatty acids and glycerol are____, they cannot be absorbed into the blood.
Fatty acids and glycerol are insoluble and hence they cannot be absorbed into the blood.
The chemical digestion process in initiated in the ____.
The chemical process of digestion is initiated in the oral cavity. The salivary amylase acts on carbohydrate and initiates the chemical digestion.
Normal bacterial flora is present in ____, a small blind sac in the large intestine.
The large intestine consists of caecum, colon and rectum. Caecum is a small blind sac which hosts some symbiotic micro-organisms.
Most of the water reabsorption takes place in the ____.
Most of the water reabsorption takes place in the large intestine.
____ occur when there is an irregular bowel movement.
Due to irregular bowel movements, the faeces are retained within the rectum. This is called constipation.
____ help in lubrication in the small intestine.
In the small intestine, the mucosal epithelium has goblet cells which secrete mucus that help in lubrication.
Since most of the consumed alcohol is absorbed in the ____, regular alcohol consumption may affect its function.
Since most of the consumed alcohol is absorbed in the stomach, regular alcohol consumption affects it.
____ is replaced by a set of permanent teeth.
The temporary milk teeth or deciduous teeth is replaced by a set of permanent or adult teeth in human beings.
During swallowing, a cartilaginous flap called epiglottis prevents the entry of food into the ____.
During swallowing, a cartilaginous flap called epiglottis prevents the entry of food into the glottis, an opening of the wind pipe.
Insulin and glucagon are secreted by ____.
The endocrine portion of pancreas secretes hormones, insulin and glucagon. The exocrine portion of pancreas secretes pancreatic digestive enzymes, that is released by the pancreatic duct into the duodenum.
Instead of pepsin, ____ acts as a proteolytic enzyme in infants.
In infants the milk proteins are digested by the proteolytic enzyme renin.
All mammals have ____ type of dentition.
All mammals, including human beings, have diphyodont type of dentition.
____ affects liver due to the deposition of bile pigments.
Jaundice affects liver due to the deposition of bile pigments.
Drugs are absorbed in ____.
Drugs are absorbed in mouth and large intestine.
____ has no significant activity during the digestive activity.
Large intestine has no significant activity during the digestive activity. Instead, they are involved in the absorption of water, minerals, and secretion of mucus which helps in an easy passage of the waste.
The digestive gland, ____ is covered with a thin connective tissue sheath called the Glisson’s capsule.
Each lobe of the liver is covered with a thin connective tissue sheath called the Glisson’s capsule.
Most of the digested food is absorbed in ____.
Most of the digested food such as glucose, fructose, and amino acids are absorbed in the small intestine.
____ is an electrolyte that helps in lubrication and protection of mucosal epithelium.
Bicarbonates present in the gastric juice play an important role in lubrication and protection of mucosal epithelium.
____ is controlled by the medulla.
Vomiting is controlled by the vomit centre in the medulla.
____ activates the enzymes in the pancreatic juice.
Enterokinase activates trypsinogen to trypsin, which in turn activates the other enzymes in the pancreatic juice.
The ____ helps in the passage of pancreatic juice and bile into the small intestine.
The hepato-pancreatic duct helps in the passage of pancreatic juice and bile into the small intestine.
____ part of the tongue contains the taste buds.
The upper surface of the tongue has small projections called papillae and some of the papillae contain taste buds.
____ cells of gastric glands secrete enzymes that digest protein.
Chief cells or peptic cells secrete the proenzyme pepsinogen. Hydrochloric acid activates the proenzyme pepsinogen to active enzyme pepsin, which converts proteins into proteoses and peptones.
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