Biomolecules – Notes
Chemical Composition of Biomolecules
All the carbon compounds derived from living tissues are called biomolecules.
In biology, the functional groups of organic chemistry are present as amino acids, fatty acids and nucleotide bases.
In alpha amino acids, the amino group and carboxylic group are present on the same -carbon atom of the amino acid.
A fatty acid has a carboxyl group attached to an R group.
Lipids are a group of biomolecules that include fats, waxes, fat-soluble vitamins and glycerides.
Lipids that contain phosphorous and a phosphorylated organic compound are known as phospholipids.
When carbon compounds with heterocyclic rings are attached to a sugar, they are called nucleosides.
If a phosphate group is also found esterified to a sugar, they are called nucleotides.
Polysaccharides and Nucleic Acids
Biomolecules can be broadly divided into two types-
biomicromolecules and biomacromolecules.