Kinetic Theory – Notes
Molecular nature of matter
Kinetic theory was developed successfully by Maxwell, Boltzmann Brown and others.
Kinetic theory explains the behavior of gases based on the idea that a gas consists of atoms or molecules which are in random motion.
Dalton’s atomic theory proposes that every element is made up of tiny particles called atoms.
The atoms of different elements differ from each other and are identical for the same element.
Different molecules combine to form a compound whereas a molecule is formed by the combination of a small number of atoms.
Behavior of gases
The value of KB is constant for all gases, which is called the Boltzmann constant. Its value is 1.38 X 10-23 JK-1.
PV=ṅRT is called the ideal gas equation. Where R= NAKB is a universal gas constant. Its value is 8.314 J mol-1 K-1. This value is constant for a given system of units.
A gas that satisfies the ideal gas equation at all temperatures and pressures is defined as an ideal gas.
At constant temperature and pressure, the volume of a gas is directly proportional to the number of moles of the gas, and V/n is constant. This is called Avogadro’s Law.