Amines – Notes
Structure, Classification and Nomenclature
Alkyl or aryl derivatives of ammonia are known as amines.
The nitrogen atom in amines is sp3 hybridised.
Due to the presence of an unshared pair of electrons, the C-N-H or C-N-C bond angle is less than the normal tetrahedral bond angle of 109.5°.
The replacement of one atom, two and three hydrogen atoms of ammonia, with one, two and three alkyl or aryl groups, yields primary, secondary and tertiary amines, respectively.
Amines are called simple amines when all the alkyl or aryl groups are the same, and mixed amines when they are different.
In the common system, an aliphatic amine is named by prefixing the alkyl group to the amine.