Organic Chemistry Some Basic Principles and Techniques – Notes
Introduction and Vital Force Theory
Carbon exhibits tetravalency.
Carbon has the ability to successively bond to other carbon atoms to form long chain. This property of carbon is called as catenation.
Carbon also forms covalent bonds with hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulphur and halogens. These complex carbon compounds are known as organic compounds.
The branch of chemistry that studies the formation and properties of organic compounds is known as organic chemistry.
Organic compounds made of only hydrogen and carbon atoms are known as hydrocarbons.
Organic Compounds: Shapes
Carbon is tetravalent in nature.
The formation of molecules and their shapes can be explained by considering the hybridisation of s and p orbitals respectively.
Hybridisation influences bond length and bond strength.
Bond strength of sp hybrid orbitals is greater than sp2 followed by sp3.