The p-block Elements – Notes
Group 13: General trends and Properties
Group 13 through 18 of the periodic table are called the p-block because the outermost electrons occupy p-orbitals.
Non-metals and metalloids are located in the p-block, as well as some metals.
The elements in period 3 and below can have expanded octets by involving d-orbitals in bonding.
The group 13 elements have 3 valence electrons and have common oxidation states of +3 and +1.
The group 13 elements show some exceptions to periodic trends of atomic radius, ionization energy and electronegativity.
Boron is a non-metal, while the other group 13 elements are metals.
Aluminium compounds have amphoteric properties – it can act as both an acid and a base.
Borax, Na2B4O7. 10H2O forms alkaline solutions in water.
The borax bead test can be used to qualitatively identify the presence of transition metals.
Orthoboric acid, H3BO3is a weak lewis acid that forms hydrogen bonds.
Diborane, B2H6 is a colourless, toxic and highly reactive gas.