Biotechnology Principles And Processes – Notes
Principles of Biotechnology
Biotechnology is a field of applied biology which utilises organisms or their enzymes to produce useful products for human beings.
Modern biotechnology arose from two core techniques, namely, genetic engineering and chemical engineering processes.
Genetic engineering techniques help isolate and select only desirable genes and avoid the transfer of undesirable genes in target organisms.
Some genetic engineering techniques are gene cloning, recombinant DNA and gene transfer.
Gene cloning refers to the production of a lineage of cells which contains one type of DNA fragment of interest derived from a population of many types of DNA fragments.
Recombinant DNA is artificial DNA created from two or more sources and incorporated into a single recombinant molecule.
Gene transfer involves the insertion of unrelated genetic information in the form of DNA into cells.
They are assumed to provide a defence mechanism against several deadly viruses such as bacteriophage.